Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content on TelevisionTalk about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual.


Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content on TelevisionTalk about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual.

Same-sex behavior that is sexual

Every 2-minute period that were coded as containing one or more form of sexual intercourse tracked in the primary coding task flirting, kissing, intimate touching, intercourse suggested, sexual activity depicted, as well as other intimate behavior 2 has also been assessed for the existence of same-sex behavior that is sexual. With this product, programmers utilized a yes/no response format to point whether some of the sexual behavior depicted when you look at the period took place between a couple of this sex that is same.

Speak about nonheterosexual issues that are sexual

Each interval that is 2-minute have been coded as containing one or more example of talk from the intimate talk groups utilized in the primary coding task ( ag e.g., feedback about own/others’ intimate actions or interests, explore sexual activity which has had currently occurred, speak about sex crimes) had been additionally coded for whether some of the intimate talk associated with nonheterosexuals. With this product, coders once again utilized a yes/no response format to point whether some of the intimate talk reflected the intimate passions or issues of nonheterosexual people. Most frequently, such feedback pertaining to gays and lesbians, although sporadically these people were connected with bisexuals.

Intimate responses involving gay and references that are lesbian have purposes aside from portraying the intimate issues among these teams such as for instance usage by right figures to reaffirm their heterosexuality or even to tease someone else. Hence, requirements had been founded to make sure that this product had been coded “yes” for an period only if explore intercourse involving nonheterosexual references really addressed sexual dilemmas of gays, lesbians, or bisexuals; otherwise, the reviews had been coded within their appropriate talk that is sexual but did not count toward a yes reaction because of this product. As an example, if a male character had been to guard his present dating dry spell and not enough sex-life by asserting, “Well, it isn’t like i am homosexual; i simply have not met the best girl!” such a comment might have been coded in the primary coding task into the intimate talk category “own/others’ intimate passions or actions” because he produced mention of their sexual desire for females, nevertheless the reference to perhaps perhaps not being homosexual wouldn’t normally have counted toward a positive reaction to the product on mention nonheterosexual intimate problems.

System Coding

Coder training

When it comes to very first 12 months’s content analysis, 16 students (10 females, 6 men) from neighborhood universities served as programmers; into the 2nd 12 months, 13 programmers (8 females, 5 men) have been either present university students or current graduates conducted the information coding. Six associated with the programmers labored on both analyses that are content. The stages of coder training included orientation towards the coding task and codebook, big team coding of programs maybe not within the test with supervisors, last but not least specific coding of training shows where programmers evaluated shows independently after which talked about the outcomes period by period in regular conferences. Initial dependability analyses had been carried out on information gathered through the specific training period of training to ascertain whenever coders could continue with all the real coding task. The dependability analyses presented below, however, relate genuinely to assessments of coder contract acquired through the coding of the subset of programs within the system examples.

Coding procedures

Coders viewed sequential 2-minute periods of system some time coded the absence or presence of sexual behavior and speak about sex linked to nonheterosexuals. Since the coding ended up being restricted to system content and excluded commercials as well as other promotions, programmers utilized kitchen area timers additionally the counters from the videocassette recorders to trace 2-minute periods of system time. Programmers recorded data on scannable types for every single period while they viewed it. Although programmers had been permitted to carry information forward (i.e., use information presented in prior periods to know this content in subsequent ones), they certainly were maybe maybe maybe not permitted to rule backwards (i.e., use information learned later in system to return and alter the coding in a youthful period). All opening credits and the ones shutting credits followed closely by content through the episode that is currenti.e., one last scene) had been coded.

Interrater Reliability Analyses

Roughly 11 to 12percent of this programs when you look at the system examples (letter = 157 and n = 154 xxxstreams mobile for the first and 2nd content analyses, respectively) had been arbitrarily assigned to two coders for separate coding and dependability evaluation. After both coders’ information have been recorded and analyzed for dependability purposes, the programmers then came across to eliminate any discrepancies into the two sets of reviews and create a last group of ranks for the show that has been utilized in information analyses associated with the whole program test. Assessment of dependability ended up being carried out on a basis that is ongoing the 4 to 5 months it took programmers to accomplish the complete system test every year. Programs out of every genre and each community type had been contained in the dependability analyses. Genres were represented in the double-coded examples in approximate percentage with their representation within the program that is overall.

For purposes of dependability assessment, the sheer number of 2-minute periods coded for every adjustable regarding intimate minorities had been summed over the periods in a episode to assess the regularity with which same-sex intimate behavior and speak about nonheterosexual intimate problems took place within each system episode. This summing led to converting nominal data (for example., presence/absence) during the 2-minute-interval degree into regularity counts during the system degree (wide range of intervals for which same-sex intimate behavior happened in the episode). Consequently, the dependability analyses utilized the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The ICC is an evaluation regarding the percentage of variance within the measures owing to coder agreement corrected for chance. For period information for instance the frequency matters utilized right here, the ICC is the same as Krippendorf’s alpha (Krippendorf, 1980).

An ICC of .70 ended up being utilized while the criterion for appropriate dependability. Both products utilized to measure the presence of nonheterosexual themes considerably surpassed this criterion. The ICC for same-sex behavior that is sexual .97 in 12 months 1 and .99 in year 2. The ICC for explore nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas ended up being .89 in 12 months 1 and .95 in year 2.

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